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{
    "url": "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Area/173/",
    "created": "2016-03-30T13:00:53Z",
    "modified": "2016-12-20T12:20:42Z",
    "public": true,
    "area_nr": "First Stage (round and grill building phases)",
    "radiocarbon_dated": "yes",
    "earliest_date_lab_number": "GrN 19482",
    "earliest_date_14C_age": 10230,
    "earliest_date_calibration": "yes",
    "earliest_date_14C_age_calibrated": 10450,
    "earliest_date_date_of_calibration": null,
    "earliest_date_standard_deviation": 200,
    "earliest_date_delta13": null,
    "latest_date_lab_number": "GrN 16462",
    "latest_date_14C_age": 9040,
    "latest_date_calibration": "yes",
    "latest_date_14C_age_calibrated": 8200,
    "latest_date_date_of_calibration": null,
    "latest_date_standard_deviation": 65,
    "latest_date_delta13": null,
    "period_comment": "The here described stage of the site belongs to the 1 Phase or Cayönü Main Phase (PPNA, PPNB, PPNC). It can be subdevided into the \"round building phase\" (10,200-9400 BP) and the subsequent \"grill building phase\" (9400-9200/100? BP), which by the excavators have been described toghether. The dating has been conducted based on two dates available from the Round Building Subphase and two dates for the Grill Building Subphase",
    "settlement_human_remains": "yes",
    "cave_rockshelters_human_remains": null,
    "cemetery_or_grave": null,
    "grave_number_of_graves": "",
    "grave_estimated_number_of_individuals": "",
    "grave_number_of_female_sex": null,
    "grave_number_of_male_sex": null,
    "grave_number_of_not_specified_sex": null,
    "description": "The first Cayönü settlement was founded by a hunter-gatherer group on the rich alluvial deposits of an almost completely silted up Pleistocene lake in the contact zone between the steppe-like plateau streching to the heart of Syria on the southern flanks of the SE Taurus Ranges and the high plateau of Eastern Anatolia. The first village consisted of small round huts about 4-5m in diameter, constructed of reed bundles with semi-subterranean floors encircled by open areas. In time, the huts becoe more ovoid with a larger internal size, woven like baskets, using slender trees and branches, and also plastered with clay (wattle and daub). Wattle and daub structures on stone footings and plastered floors are the features of the later round dwellings (r4). The floor of the hut called RA is red painted. From the later round dwellings to the oval-like round stucture (BN) with a stone footing constructed of larger stones may be the earliest example of \"special\" buidlings. A grill building (GG) constructed above it has disurbed its fill. \r\nThe gournd plans of the earliest grill buildings, lying directly above the round semi-subterranean dwellings, display a nearly rectangular form with roughly parallel rows of stones laid out on the ground at wide intervals (for supporting the floor), and rectangular spaces of different dimensions. The wattle basket tradition was retained for the superstructures. The reason for the villagers moving from semi-subterranean dwellings to living on raised platforms is thought to be the frequent floods and/or the long rainy seasons. The grill buildings might also have been constructed from a need for larger closed living spaces partitioned for different functions. The rectangular interiors of these new buildings were arranged in three differnet sections. In the northern half was a raised living floor laid over five or six roughly parallel \"beam like\" rows made of three lines (grills) of medium sized stones separated by wide channels. When these grills were covered, a large utility area was created. In the middle section of the house, elevationally lower than the grills, was a rectangular central room with a plastered fllor and with a fireplace in the souteast or soutwest corner. In the southern section of the house, there was a number of small compartments, occasionally paved with stones, on either side of a central entrance. An interior fireplace, first indroducted with these gril buildings an an importante element of them, had a carefully plastered floor on a stone base and an opening in the back. Small buttresses on the southern walls of the buildings might have been bases for posts. The \"foundations\" of the grill buildings, of rows of unmortared stones, have no function in supporting the superstructure of the buildings. Rows of postholes surrouned by stones, along the long sides of the buildings, ca. 70-80cm apart and the post bases of flat stones in the central room point to the fact that the superstructures of these buildings must have resembled the \"old-fashioned\" oval dwellings that were constructed of bundles of reeds and/or twigs  vaulted on top, supported by posts in places and ounded at the \"corners\". Besides the dimensions of the buildings, there is no change in the general apperance of the village. At the beginning of the Grill Building Subphase, in the outer, central ourtyards the abandoned cavaties of the semi-subterranean dwellings were used for storage or garbage. In addition to that, new storage pits were dug and plastered inside. The open spaces between the grill buildings, that were constructed close to each other (S-SE orientation), became rubbish areas.",
    "comment": "For more informations on the burials, please consult the respective entries.",
    "site": "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Site/105/",
    "area_type": "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_areatype/4/",
    "settlement_type": "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_settlementtype/2/",
    "cave_rockshelters_type": null,
    "quarry_exploitation_type": null,
    "period": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_chronological_system/1/"
    ],
    "dating_method": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_period_datingmethod/1/"
    ],
    "earliest_datedated_by": [],
    "latest_datedated_by": [],
    "period_reference": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Book/7T22TE6T/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Book/9XDBSPVG/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Book/EXQJS5R8/"
    ],
    "settlement_structure": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_settlementstructure/4/"
    ],
    "settlement_construction_type": [],
    "settlement_construction_shape": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_constructionshape/2/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_constructionshape/4/"
    ],
    "settlement_building_technique": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_buildingtechnique/5/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_buildingtechnique/6/"
    ],
    "settlement_special_features": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_specialfeatures/15/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_specialfeatures/25/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_specialfeatures/5/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_specialfeatures/20/"
    ],
    "cave_rockshelters_evidence_of_occupation": [],
    "quarry_raw_material": [],
    "cemetery_or_graves_topography": [],
    "cemetery_or_graves_mortuary_features": [],
    "grave_type": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_gravetype/2/"
    ],
    "grave_type_of_human_remains": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_typeofhumanremains/2/"
    ],
    "grave_age_groups": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_agegroups/11/"
    ],
    "grave_sexes": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/dc_area_sexes/4/"
    ],
    "grave_manipulations_of_graves": [],
    "reference": [
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Book/9XDBSPVG/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Book/EXQJS5R8/",
        "http://defc.acdh.oeaw.ac.at/api/Book/PHD79UQG/"
    ]
}