Finds 37

Main Information
Finds ID 37
Site Sumaki Höyük
Area ID 19 settlement
Research event excavation: rescue The Sumaki Höyük Excavation 2007
Finds type small finds
Small finds category tool
Small finds type Awl
Grinding stone
Botany species
Animal remains species
Animal remains completeness None
Animal remains part
Lithics technology
Lithics industry
Lithics cores and preparation
Lithics retouched tools
Lithics unretouched tools
Lithics raw material
Obsidian None
Obsidian amount None
Pottery form
Pottery detail
Pottery decoration
Pottery type None
Material basalt
Confidence 5
Comment The dominant raw material of the ground stone industry is basalt. Even though source analysis has not yet been conducted, basalt was most likely brought to the site from a basalt outcrop of Kiradagi volcanism, covering an area of 25 m2, only 10 km to the SW of the site. Basalt is used in the production of grinding stones, hand stones, abraders, and pestles. These tools originally belonged to the 2nd Phase and were collected and re-used by the people ofthe 1st Phase in their architecture. ln the 2nd Phase several such stones have been found in situ, fixed to the ground. The fact that there are few mortars suggests that grinding stones also served as mortars. Granite, marble, flint, sandstone, and Iimestone are the other raw materials. Polishers are made of various materials such as granite and marble. Celts and chisels are in various sizes and forms and increase in the 2nd Phase, flat -perforated-round stones made of natural flat pebbles are predominant, especially in the 2nd and 3rd Phases. Standardization in their size (5-6 cm in diameter) shows their specialised function. Chipped disc and grooved stones, typical tools of the Early Pottery Neolithic, are very rare. A few pieces of bowls of various colared stones have been found mainly in the fills of the 2nd and 3rd Phases. Piercing tools in different sizes - awls, borers and punches - constitute an important part of the bone tool assemblage. Blunt-edged-spatulae/polishers made from ribs and used for scraping, indicate that Leatherwork was carried out at Sumaki. Bone and stone chisels and celts in different sizes and shapes indicate intensive woodworking. Most of the bone chisels have narrow cutting edges. Bone or antler hafts were not as common as the other bone tools, and antler sickles are absent. Needles, among the typical tools of the Pre-Pottery Neolitic bone kit, are very rare (only 2 pieces). Notched "tally-sticks" on shoulder blades of large mammals are apparently important objects in the daily life of Sumaki. The amount (34 examples: 2 are complete, the rest are fragmentary) in the 2nd Phase emphasizes their significance. None have been found in the 1st Phase, and it seems that they are not common in the 3rd Phase either. There is a Iarge number of unidentified bone tool fragments. Discarded pieces are the sign of production of bone artifacts at the site. According to preliminary sorting, the majority of the bone tools are from the 2nd Phase; there are very few in the 1st Phase. Clay sealings are the largest group among the clay finds, both in numbers and in variety. So far, approximately 600 have been found. Most are broken, some are very brittle, some are hard. According to preliminary observations, they were pressed and/or glued onto a variety of different objects (baskets, twigs, reeds, pots, etc.). Same have strings/thongs of different materials threaded through them. Although these types may be confused with beads, they can be differentiated through their rough appearance. Preliminary analysis indicates that nearly all of the figurines, sealings, and objects made with bitumen-tempered clay have been found in the open spaces of the 2nd Phase, in flood/torrent fills, and in the upper Ievel fills of some 3rd Phase buildings used by the 2nd Phase.
Interpretations related to these Finds
Interpretation ID 38