Area 182

Main Information
Area ID 182
Site Cayönü
Area type cemetery or grave
Area NR Second Stage
Period Anatolia: Pre-Pottery Neolithic A 10200 - 8800
Anatolia: Pre-Pottery Neolithic B 8800 - 7000
Dating method
Radiocarbon dated no
Earliest date: Lab Number
Earliest date: 14C age (BP) None
Earliest date: Calibration None
Earliest date: 14C age calibrated (BC) None
Earliest date: Date of calibration None
Earliest date: Standard deviation None
Earliest date: Delta 13C None
Earliest date: Dated by
Latest date: Lab Number
Latest date: 14C age (BP) None
Latest date: Calibration None
Latest date: 14C age calibrated (BC) None
Latest date: Date of calibration None
Latest date: Standard deviation None
Latest date: Delta 13C None
Latest date: Dated by
Period Reference Bicakci, E., An Essay on the Chronology of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Settlements of the Taurus Region (Turkey) with the Building Remains and C14 Dates., None, None
Özdogan, A., Cayönü, None, None
Comment The graves are dated over their position/ conection with the buildings of the phases (Grill Building Late/ g5-6, 9400-9200 BP, Channeled Building Phase/ch1-4, 9100-9000 BP). As the excavators don't describe the exact location where radiocarbondates were collected (in/next to the graves?), the dates are not described exactly here (please consult the respective entry on the settlement for more information).
Settlement type None
Settlement structure
Settlement building type
Settlement building shape
Settlement building technique
Settlement archaeological features
Cave/rockshelters type None
Cave/rockshelters: Evidence of graves/human remains
Cave/rockshelters: Evidence of occupation
Quarry exploitation type None
Quarry raw material
Cemetery/graves topography part of house
Cemetery/graves mortuary features
Grave: number of graves
Grave type pit grave
Grave: type of human remains inhumation
secondary deposition
Grave: estimated number of individuals
Grave: age groups part of specialist report
Grave: sexes part of specialist report
Grave: number of female sex None
Grave: number of male sex None
Grave: number of not specified sex None
Grave: disturbance of graves construction of settlement
Description In the late grill buildings, the graves, either single or multiple, under the central room or in between the grill "walls" are primary. The bodies in the central room are oriented NE/SW, whereas the ones in between the grill "walls" lie E-W (mostly determined by the layouts of the grill "walls"). The bodies are in a tightly flexed position on their right sides with their faces into the ground and accompanied by lumps of red ochre and ground stone artifacts. Sometimes they have been buried with necklaces around their necks. Under the plaster between the grill "walls" a dog burial and a boar skull had been placed very close to a male burial. During the use of the reversed or mis-oriented grills, in the western sector, some of the circular stone features in the open space comprised secondary burials. Isolated skull and jaw fragments in the courtyard deposits of the Canneled Building Subphase suggest that some of the skulls might have been kept in the huts of the workshops. In the Scull Building (BM1) there are two shallow pits, one of which is round and small and the other oval and large. The smaller one contained many skulls (decapitated) that are secondary in character, whereas in the other there are primary burials much damaged. The skeletal remains in the oval pit were accompanied by some aurochs skulls and horns but without clear association; all were sealed under a properly made earth floor. Among the scattered bones found in the burnt fill above the floor of the BM1a Building there were a necklace that was left as a gift or buried together with the owners, isolated beads, and a flint knife, that could have been status objects. Some cut marks and defleshing activities were detected.
Location of the Site

Finds in this Area
Interpretations related to this Area
Interpretation ID 25
ID 29