Area 75

Main Information
Area ID 75
Site Körtik Tepe
Area type settlement
Area NR Pre-Pottery Neolithic Phase
Period Anatolia: Pre-Pottery Neolithic A 10200 - 8800
Dating method radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dated yes
Earliest date: Lab Number KlA44864
Earliest date: 14C age (BP) 10252
Earliest date: Calibration yes
Earliest date: 14C age calibrated (BC) 10405
Earliest date: Date of calibration None
Earliest date: Standard deviation 60
Earliest date: Delta 13C -23
Earliest date: Dated by charcoal
Latest date: Lab Number ETH-39510
Latest date: 14C age (BP) 9925
Latest date: Calibration yes
Latest date: 14C age calibrated (BC) 9280
Latest date: Date of calibration None
Latest date: Standard deviation 45
Latest date: Delta 13C -34
Latest date: Dated by charcoal
Period Reference Benz, Marion; Coşkun, Aytaç; Hajdas, Irka; Deckers, Katleen; Riehl, Simone; Alt, Kurt W.; Özkaya, Ve, Methodological Implications of new Radicarbon Dates from the Early Holocene Site of Körtik Tepe, Southeast Anatolia, 2012,
Coskun, A., "Körtik Tepe", None, None
Özkaya, V., Körtik Tepe, None, None
Benz, M., Stratigraphy and Radiocarbon Dates of the PPNA Site of Körtik Tepe, Diyarbakir, None, None
Comment The radiocarbon dates of trench ABO and AB4 all fall within a very short time range between 9660 cal. BC and 9320 cal. BC. However, in both dated sequences the upper layers of the first main occupation period [CH 2B; CH 21] were much younger, dating between 9450 cal. BC and 9320 cal. BC. The older phases down to -300 cm largely overlap. They match the course of the calibration curve and correspond to a plateau. The calibrated dates are therefore lengthened, and it is impossible to decide whether they document a very short occupation period or in fact correspond to about 150-250 years. Wiggle matehing suggests very short gaps of probably one generation or less between the different phases. The dates precisely fit the time range calculated for the Early PPNA at other sites. The oldest radiocarbon dated Phase Vl suggests a date of 9620 cal. BC right at the transition from the Younger Dryas (YD) to the Early Holocene. Though Phase Vll, the oldest excavated so far, has not yet been dated, it is likely that a settlement had already been established on the site during the last phase of the YD. The architectural remains and the material assemblage recovered at Körtik Tepe present a picture parallel to those other contemporary sites of the Upper Tigris Valley, Hallan Cemi being first in line. from the testimony of the finds recovered in the dwellings and in the graves as burial gifts, faunal analyses, and all the other evidence, Körtik Tepe shows us without any doubt that it is a site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period. Previously, depending on the then available C14 dates, we had been considering the earlier parts of the 10th millennium BC as the beginning stage of the site; however, as noted above, the new radiocarbon dates have now pushed the earliest horizon of Körtik Tepe to the firsthalf of the 11th millennium BC, thus making it one of the oldest known Settlements in Anatolia. Here it is worth noting that there are some finds, such as the microliths of Epi-Paleolithic tradition with parallels at Hallan Cemi and the macro points with inverted backs, which hint at the possibility of still an earlier occupation layer at Körtik Tepe.
Settlement type tell
Settlement structure houses: radial
Settlement building type one-room
Settlement building shape circular
Settlement building technique pavement
plaster wall
Settlement archaeological features storage building
Cave/rockshelters type None
Cave/rockshelters: Evidence of graves/human remains
Cave/rockshelters: Evidence of occupation
Quarry exploitation type None
Quarry raw material
Cemetery/graves topography
Cemetery/graves mortuary features
Grave: number of graves
Grave type pit grave
Grave: type of human remains inhumation
Grave: estimated number of individuals 455
Grave: age groups part of specialist report
Grave: sexes part of specialist report
Grave: number of female sex None
Grave: number of male sex None
Grave: number of not specified sex None
Grave: disturbance of graves none recorded
Description Although the cultural context of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic habitation layers of the mound is, in its basic traits, similar to those of the other approximately contemporary sites in the region, the presence of important differences in certain components of the artefactua l assemblage is also evident. All the data at hand point to the fact that Körtik Tepe was a permanent settlement. Through the work on the mound-still ongoing-it became possible to distinguish the presence of at least six distinct architectural layers. ln all of them, all the dwellings display a round plan. he houses, which evidently had mud tloors, had walls constructed of a single row of unworked stones, some still standing up to a certain height; however, most of them had been disturbed due to the construction activities in the upper layers. What is interesting isthat in the walls of some of the buildings are large mortars and grinding stones. Apparently a decision was made to convert these mortars from food-producing artefacts to architectural members; Along with the presence of the grinding stones used in the walls, animal bones found in many of the houses have been providing information on the subsistence pattern of the inhabitants. It is possible to consider the buildings at Körtik Tepe in three main groups. The first group comprises the buildings that display a clear circular plan-type (diam. 2,3-3m), now numbering 86; there are many others that have not been that well preserved. Simple foundation walls of rows of unworked stones and subterranean tloors of compacted mud are common to all. We have no definite evidence as to how the superstructures were built, but, seemingly, after the stone wall reached a certain height, possibly reeds reinforced with plaster were used. The second group comprises structures that are too small to be considered as dwellings. These structures, observed in all the levels in the excavated areas, are also and the diameters vary from 1,1m to 2,1m. Apart from those which were much damaged by later intrusions, 29 definable examples of these structures have been recovered, all having pebble paved floors. Similar small sized structures, not suitable for dwelling and possibly serving as storage units, have also been recovered at Hallan Cemi. The presence of plant remains recovered in abundance in these buildings also points to their function in this direction. The third group of buildings (diam. 3,42 - 3,8m), so far only three in number (Y3, Y11, Y44), differ from the others in their dimensions and floors. Their foundation walls have been preserved up to four courses of medium-sized stones regularly arranged using clay mortar. Findings associated with these buildings include two skeletons and the horns of a wild goat. Interpretation: special function buildings, bringing to mind the communal buildings found at Hallan Cemi.
Comment As the author doesn't distiguish the architecture and finds of the different layers, all the Pre-Pottery layers are described as one Area. For a detailed description of the burial costums see "Körtik Tepe - cemetery/graves".
Location of the Site

Finds in this Area
Interpretations related to this Area
Interpretation ID 41
ID 42
ID 44