Area 178

Main Information
Area ID 178
Site Cayönü
Area type settlement
Area NR Second Stage
Period Anatolia: Pre-Pottery Neolithic A 10200 - 8800
Anatolia: Pre-Pottery Neolithic B 8800 - 7000
Dating method radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dated yes
Earliest date: Lab Number GrN 6243
Earliest date: 14C age (BP) 9320
Earliest date: Calibration yes
Earliest date: 14C age calibrated (BC) 8700
Earliest date: Date of calibration None
Earliest date: Standard deviation 55
Earliest date: Delta 13C None
Earliest date: Dated by
Latest date: Lab Number GrN 16462
Latest date: 14C age (BP) 9040
Latest date: Calibration yes
Latest date: 14C age calibrated (BC) 8320
Latest date: Date of calibration None
Latest date: Standard deviation 65
Latest date: Delta 13C None
Latest date: Dated by
Period Reference Bicakci, E., An Essay on the Chronology of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Settlements of the Taurus Region (Turkey) with the Building Remains and C14 Dates., None, None
Özdogan, A., Cayönü, None, None
Comment The here described stage belongs to the "First Phase" of the site, and includes the Late "Grill Building Subphase" (9200-9100 BP) as well as the "Channeld Building Subphase" (9100-9000 BP).
Settlement type tell
Settlement structure houses: free-standing
Settlement building type
Settlement building shape rectangular
Settlement building technique mud brick
stone lining
wattle and daub
Settlement archaeological features clay floor
paved area
plastered floor
post hole
stone platform
storage pit
waste pit
Cave/rockshelters type None
Cave/rockshelters: Evidence of graves/human remains
Cave/rockshelters: Evidence of occupation
Quarry exploitation type None
Quarry raw material
Cemetery/graves topography
Cemetery/graves mortuary features
Grave: number of graves
Grave type pit grave
Grave: type of human remains inhumation
secondary deposition
Grave: estimated number of individuals
Grave: age groups part of specialist report
Grave: sexes part of specialist report
Grave: number of female sex None
Grave: number of male sex None
Grave: number of not specified sex None
Grave: disturbance of graves
Description At the beginning of the Second Stage, not much change is observed in the general appearance of the village. The grills, which generally have 5-6 consecutive rebuildings in slightly different orientations, were still in use. Within time, not only did the ground plan evolve from open grills to meandered ones and then to closed ones but the arrangement and the construction techniques of the stone rows ("walls") were also improved. Further progress was represented by broader and closer parallel rows separated by narrower channels partly covered with capstones. Accordingly, floors came to resemble "platforms", with neatly placed stones and perpendicular corners in the "reversed or misoriented" grill buidlings which were transitional to the channeled buildings. This improvements reached their peak during the final phase of the Channeled Building Subphase when fully developed neatly made rectangular stone platforms supporting the stone and mudbrick walls of buildings appeared. Other developments are: the increasment of the number of the stone rows (grills), further development of earthern plastered floors overlying the "grills" - in one example (GBb) in the western sector of the site, the plastered floor was devided into small cells by double rows of small stones and the plaster turns up towards these rows. The traditional superstructure roofing continues until the early phase of the channeled buildings ("reversed or mis-oriented grill buildings"), while the supporting wooden posts were now almost integrated into the parallel "platforms" (building DP). In the last stage of the Grill Building Subphase almost all of the daily activities were carried out inside or ust in fromt of the buildings.The grill buildings were "buried" after five or six consecutive building levels with a layer of small pebbles ("burying abandoned buildings or special buildings by leaving some items (gifts?)", tradition ntil the second half of the Large Room Building Subphase). From the Channaled Building Subphase on, the settlement pattern changes completely. Apart from GBa, the "reverse or mis-oriented grill buildings" with broader grill-like foundations were orientd NW-SE. The widening of the spaces between the buildings shows, that open areas have again become important. Especially the western sector of the settlement had developed into an "industrial and residential area" with may workshops constructed of perishable materials, whereas the eastern sector acquired the character of being the communal area of the village. It is surrounded by large special buildins for different functions in the south and has 46 roasting pits of different sizes, and seems to be totally free from any residences in the Channeled Building Subphase. There are radical chages in the construction of the suprstructure in the last phase of the channeled buildings: the first stone socles (50cm in width and hight) with kerpic/adome walls were raised on wide neatly made rectangular platforms with very narrow channels totally closed by flat capstones. The walls on the socles were made of organic-tempered kerpic, not in the form of bricks but rather made by laying lumps of clay on top of each other and pressing them down. Both, the interior and the exterior faces of the socles were covered with kepric mud but there is no plastering. The interior separation walls were constructed in the same technique, leaving doorways for access. The stones and capstones of the platform were totally sealed under a thick floor of beaten earth. The stone "sidewalks" along the long side of the building are another novelty of this period. Highly probably the buildings had gable or flat roofs covered in the traditional style with materials like branches, brushwood, reeds, and rushes. The tradition of semi-subterranean dwellings (see settlement description "First Stage") continues with the "sepcial buildings". Of these the Flagstone Building (FA) with a floor paved with large flagstones, is rectangulary-planned with rounded corners. The Skull Building has an oval plan. It has three building phases and a mud plastered floor, under which there are two grave pits. Both buildings are semi-subterranean and their walls lie against the sides of the hollows, with their north walls buttressed by short pilasters. In the Flagstone Building, opposite each buttress, there are standing stones in the middle of the floor and a thrid one in frot of its east wall.
Comment For a more detailed description of the mortuary practices, please see the respective entry ("Cayönü, graves/cemetry") of this Phase.
Location of the Site

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